Chiddingstone Homework Help Romans

 

The Roman army was made up of groups of soldiers called legions. There were over 5,000 soldiers in a legion. Each legion had its own number, name, badge and fortress. There were about 30 legions around the Roman Empire, three of which were based in Britain at Caerleon, Chester and York.

Tombstones at Chester indicate that some men joined the legions young; two men had been only fourteen when they had joined up.

A legion had commanders, officers and ordinary soldiers. There were also doctors, engineers and other workers

The different sections of a Legion

The Roman army was divided into legions of about 5,000 men.

Contubernium: consisted of 8 men.

Centuria: (century) was made up of 10 contubernium with a total of 80 men commanded by a centurion.

Cohorts: (cohort) included 6 centurie, a total of 480 men.

Legio: (Legion) consisted of 10 cohorts, about 5,000 men.

Eques Legionis: Each legio had a cavarly unit of 120 attached to them.

Contubernium (8 men) >Centuria (80 men) >Cohort (480 men) > Legio (5,000 men)

The smallest unit of the Roman legion was the contubernium (tent group) of eight men. They marched, fought, worked and camped together.


The 'section' (eight men) - the basic unit of the legion

In barracks, these eight men shared two rooms. On a march they shared a leather tent and a mule to carry it.


A leather tentfor a Contubernium


On a march the Romans lived in tents

Contubernium (8 men) >Centuria (80 men) >Cohort (480 men) > Legio (5,000 men)

 

Religion was an important part of Roman daily life. The Romans believed in many different gods and goddesses. If the gods were angry, terrible things could happen. To keep the gods happy, animals were sacrificed (killed) as offerings.

Romans sacrificed animals such as bulls, sheep and pigs.

People worshipped the gods in temples where they made sacrifices of animals and precious things. The Romans believed that blood sacrifices were the best way to communicate with the gods. Sheep were often sacrificed to Jupiter.

Sometimes a temple was built to only worship one of the gods. A temple to all gods was known as a pantheon. It was named after the word for the entire collection of thier gods called the Pantheon.

The Romans thought that their gods were all part of a family and people told stories or myths about them.

The most important gods to the Romans were the Greek gods from Mount Olympus. The Greek gods were given Roman names, for example, Zeus became Jupiter.

  • King of the Gods.
  • God of the sky
  • Weapon: Thunderbolt
    (thunder and lightning).
  • Son of Uranus
  • Father of Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto
  • Husband of Juno, who looked after women.

Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto were the three sons of Saturn.

  • God of the Sea and also earthquakes
  • Holds: a trident, which had three prongs.
  • Son of Saturn
  • Brother of Jupiter and Pluto
  • Greek name: Poseidon
  • God of War (pictured right)
  • Father of Romulus and Remus

Soldiers believed that Mars decided who won, who lost and who died in battle. They prayed to him to ask him to keep them safe from harm and to allow them to win in battle.

  • Goddess of love and beauty
  • Mother of Cupid
  • God of Love
  • Weapon: bow. Anyone hit by one of his arrows fell madly in love.
  • God of the Sun
    Each day he drove his chariot of fiery horses across the sky to give light to the world.
  • Also God of healing
  • God of the Death
  • Son of Saturn
  • Brother of Jupiter and Neptune
  • Husband of Proserpine
  • Greek name: Hades
  • God of Time
  • Son of Uranus
    Father of Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto
  • Greek name: Cronos
  • Goddess of the Moon and of hunting
  • Goddess of Wisdom, intelligence and learning

The blacksmith of the gods and a god of the underworld.

  • Goddess of the hearth and home

Many people had shrines in their houses with a figure of their favourite god. They believed it was important to keep the gods happy with gifts or statues.

The Romans believed that your spirit (soul) went to the underworld when you died. To get there the dead needed to cross the river Styx. The dead person's family would give them a coin to pay the ferryman, Charon.

The Romans celebrated special days for gods by holding festivals, which included processions and parties. There were thirty-two Roman religious festivals in January alone. These festivals included horse racing in honour of Mars.

 

Further information about the gods

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