Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism
1904 WordsApr 23rd, 20138 Pages
Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism
HUM 1020 (ITT/ITS)
March 25, 2013
Hinduism, Buddhism Jainism, and Sikhism are all Eastern religions with similar philosophical beliefs. In Hinduism you embrace a great diversity of different beliefs, a fact that can be easy confusing to western religions which are accustomed to creeds, confessions, and carefully-worded beliefs of statements. In Hinduism you can believe a wide variety of things about God, and the universe. There are some beliefs common to nearly all forms of Hinduism that can be shown, and these common beliefs are generally regarded as boundaries outside which they are considered to be heresy or non-Hindu religion. The…show more content…
Prajua basically is the discernment, insight, wisdom, enlightenment that one achieves once a Buddhist mind is pure and calm.
All that practice Buddhism also are aware of the four noble truths, Dukkha, Samudaya, Niodah, and Magga. These truths simply state suffering exists, recognition that there is a cause for suffering, there is an end to suffering and in order to end suffering, you must follow the Eightfold Path. The first path consists of Samma ditthi, the right understanding of the Four Noble Truths. The second path is Sammas sankappa, the right thinking and following of the right path in life. The third path is called Samma vaca and this is the right speech meaning no lying, criticism, condemning, gossiping, or the use of harsh language. Samma kammanta is the fourth path which says the right conduct by following the Five Precepts. Samma ajiva which states the right livelihood to support yourself without harming others. Samma vayama is the right effect to promote good thoughts and conquer evil thoughts. Samma sati is the right mindfulness that one becomes aware of your body, mind and feelings. The eighth path would be Samma Samadhi which states the right concentration that one can meditate to achieve a higher state of consciousness.
Jainism is another religion of India, it has very close relations with other main religions of India like Hinduism and Buddhism. It
The religion Sikhism is the 5th most followed religion in the world. The religion originated in India in 1469. The creator of Sikhism is Guru Granth Sahib, he began teaching these practices that were different from Buddhism and Hinduism. Nine Guru’s followed after him and begun to teach Sikhism in their community for century.
Major Points in History:
- Guru’s Period Era
- Banda Singh Bahadur Era (Started preaching against Caste System)
- Religious Persecution Era (Sikhs murdered and killed)
- Sikh Kingdom Era (Ruled area of Punjab;1760’s)
- Colonial Era (Fight with British, kingdom ended 1897)
- Sikh Immigrants (Sikhs immigrated to U.S.;1897)
- Present Era (Prime Minister, India; Sikh followers)
- Texts that contain Mahavira’s teachings are referred to as the Agamas and are the scriptures of Svetambara Jainism
- Mahavira’s disciples collected his works into texts or sutras.
- The texts had to be memorized because Monks and Nuns couldn’t own religious books as part of their vow of non-acquisition.
- They (Monks and Nuns) couldn’t write, either.
- Jain theology developed after Mahavira because of some really smart Monks, so they had to memorize even more.
- Many original texts by Mahavira have been lost.
- As time went by some texts were forgotten or misremembered.
- -This distortion of the texts caused much concern to the Jains
- -Around 350 BC, when a famine killed off many Jain Monks they lost the memories of very many texts with them.
- -The Digambara sect of Jainism believes that all the Agamas were lost in the famine.
- -The Svetambara sect of Jainism believes that most of them survived.
- -Both sects agree, however, that the Purvas were lost in the famine
- -After the famine Monks and Nuns of the Svetambara sect held conferences to see what they should do to keep
the texts safe.
- Monks and Nuns were then allowed to keep their own religious books, after the famine.
- The texts pertain to how they should live and the teachings of Mahavira and some Monks
Sikhism texts are in one or two books, but they have many chapters within.
- The Si Guru Granth Sahib contains 38 chapters
- -They contain the writing of Gurus
- -Many chapters begin with the word “Raga” (expand on this eventually)
- -The chapters are written by multiple Gurus and Bhagats, there are also many Banis
A picture of a man reading the Sikh texts.
What is it's distribution?
There is a total of26 million followers world wide following Sikhism. There is about 1.9 million followers in India alone. This religion in over 500 years old and is very different from Hinduism and Islam.
This is a picture of the Jainist symbol. You may see the Swastika which was originally a Jain symbol. Its meaning will be explained later in this page in the practices and beliefs section.
This is a Guru, a spiritual leader of the Sikhs.
Guru means a teacher of spiritual matters. The Gurus were the leaders of the Sikhs in religious matters.They also became the leaders of the Sikhs in worldly matters. They believed the gurus were gods in the form of a human. All the Gurus made their contributions and a new religion Sikhism was formed.
Their religious leaders
Guru Nanak Dev Ji(1469-1539)
Guru Angad Dev Ji(1504-1552)
Guru Amar Das Ji(1479-1574)
Guru Ram Des Ji(1534-1581)
Guru Arjan Dev Ji(1595-1606)
Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji(1595-1644)
Guru Har Rai Ji(1630-1661)
Guru Har Krishan Ji(1656-1664)
Guru Tagh Bahadur Ji(1621-1675)
Guru Gobind Singh Ji(1666-1708)
Guru Granth Sahib Ji(1708-present)
The religious leaders of Jainism
Monks and nuns
- Sikhs and Jains celebrate holy days just as Hindus and Buddhists do
- Sikhs and Jains have sacred texts and holy books just as Hindus and Buddhists do
- Jains and Buddhists do not believe in a personal god
- Sikhs and Hindus believe there is a god. Hindus believe in more then one
- Sikhs and Jains believe in reincarnation just as Hindus and Buddists do
- Sikhs, Jains, Hindus, and Buddhists all believe in worshiping daily
- The four religions all have the goal of becoming enlightened or reaching liberation which means becoming one with the universe and eliminating all karma from the soul
- Sikhs and Jains have a strong belief that everyone and everything is equal and should be treated with compassion. Buddists and Hindus belief in compassion but they do not treat everyone the same way. The Women may be treated differently then the men and some people are treated better because of there social status.
- Sikhs do not believe in fasting while Buddhists and Hindus do
- The four religions are all different because they each have different routines they must follow along with the rules of there religion
- Jains follow a strict vegetarian diet while Hindus and Buddhists do not
- Sikhism and Jainism have a single founder while Hinduism does not.
- The four religions all have different religious leaders ( Ex. Jainism- Monks and Nuns)
- The four religions all have different ways of reaching enlightenment.
- There are 24 million Christians in India which is 2.3% of India's population. It is India's third largest religion.
- There are 160 million Muslims in India which is 13.4% of India's population. It is India's second largest religion behind Hinduism.
Jainism is a religion based in India. It has similairities to buddhism but does not have any gods in worship. Sikhism is also similar to Jainism.They both believe in something called karma. Karma has been thrown around in our culture as an expression. Karma is when you do something bad, bad things happen to you in your life. As well as good things. In all Indian religions karma grants you luck in your next life. That's right! Reincarnation! Like when you die you are reborn. Karma grants you better form in your next life. If someone comes to a certain level of karma they may break the cycle of rebirth and are grant a place in one of several heavens. However, there are also eight hells where the damned go.
·Main langauge is Punjab
·Sikhism is monotheism (believes in one god)
·Purpose in live is to align with god and become a saint
Guru Nanak’s Birthday
Guru Gobind Singh’s Birthday
The religion Jainism is a very caring community. They believe and care for the universes health, and that animals and plants are living souls and should be treated equally. They are vegetarians and believe in reincarnation.
"Friendship to all living forms,
delight in the qualities of the virtuous ones,
unlimited compassion for all suffering beings,
equanimity toward all who wish me harm,
may my soul have these dispositions now and forever."
-- Jain prayer
5th cent. BCE
Life of Mahavira, the founder of Jainism.
3rd cent. BCE
A Jain community forms in the trading center of Mathura.
c. 4th-5th cent. CE
Umasvati codifies Jain texts in the Tattvartha Sutra.
Schism occurs, forming the Svetambara and Digambara sects.
Digambara Jainism is frequently supported by south Indian royalty.
Hemacandra, a Svetambara monk, is tutor to the rulers Siddharaja and his nephew Kumarapala.
The iconoclastic Sthanakvasis sect emerges.
Decline of image-worshipping ascetic communities.
Revival of asceticism and development of mystical sects. Many Jains emigrate to East Africa, the United Kingdom and North America.